Volume 13, Issue No 24, Circulation: under revision, 1st Dec 2013
Next Issue: 15th Dec 2013
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Translate into YOUR Language automatically: click the fish
What would you do if you knew you could not fail?
Robert H Schuller
Wonderful publishing Sunday, my loyal Readers!
Today, I'd love to ask you to join me in this very special
Billions Rising promotes Solving Problems with a Hand Up,
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There are better ways to overcome challenges and eradicate
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Today's Feature Article
Methods of financing a business
Firms use a variety of approaches and resources to cover
the necessary expenses of their operations and fund
investments to maintain and grow their business. Financing
options and choices depend on a variety of factors
including the size, industry, life cycle stage,
incorporation status of the business, as well as its
profitability, operations, long-term strategy and short-
term challenges. Often, firms use a combination of
financing alternatives to fund their various needs and
The various options differ along a number of features. Some
rely on external funding sources, others utilize resources
available internally within the firm. Different financing
choices carry different costs. Some funding comes with
explicitly stated financing charges and schedules. Others
result in no repayment guarantees, but have implications on
ownership and distribution of future profits.
Equity financing provides capital to the business in
exchange for partial or full ownership rights in the
business. Equity financing carries no explicit cost or
financing charges, but the provider of funds becomes a
claimant on the firm’s future profits. Businesses raise
funds via equity financing infrequently, as it has wide-
ranging implications on ownership. Typically, equity
infusions occur at the beginning of a business’s life and
at specific, significant growth points in its life cycle.
A variety of individuals or businesses can provide equity
financing to a business. Small business owners and partners
purchasing the necessary supplies, materials and equipment
for their start-ups from their own savings provide equity
capital. For already existing, early-stage, high-growth
businesses angel investors and venture capitalists can
provide additional equity financing for continued expansion.
Investors buying the shares of a newly public, IPO company
become equity-holders of that firm.
Debt financing always carries financing charges in the form
of pre-set interest or a higher principal amount to be
repaid at the end of the debt’s term. There is an almost
infinite variety of debt financing instruments available,
some of these are extremely complex and sophisticated deals.
The most important features of debt are the available debt
amount, the financing charge or interest rate and the
schedule and size of repayment obligations.
The cost of debt financing is a function of a number of
factors, including the financial strength of the business
requesting the financing, the term of the debt and the
availability of collateral for a secured debt obligation.
While debt can be costly, it has no immediate implications
on ownership. Firms widely use the various forms of debt
for a variety of purposes: covering short-term financing
needs or for raising funds for long-term purchases and
Smaller businesses tend to use simpler debt financing deals.
Early startups often utilize some form of informal peer-to-
peer or family loan to cover initial investment needs. Most
businesses rely on credit cards, with the newest and
smallest ones using this expensive, unsecured type of
credit for most of their funding needs. More established
businesses rely on credit cards for short-term funding,
only. Most firms also have access to a line of credit with
their financial institution. Some may turn to longer-term
loans to fund specific projects. Mortgages or secured loans
supported by collateral are often used for purchases of
property and equipment.
Large corporations issue their own debt by selling short-
term commercial papers or medium and long-term bonds to
financial institutions or private investors. The notes and
bonds sold by the firms carry specific promises for
periodic payments and the repurchase of the instruments at
a pre-set price based on a pre-arranged schedule.
Providers of debt financing can pursue the company for
failing to meet its debt obligations, which can be costly
and highly disruptive for the business.
Leasing is technically a form of debt financing, however it
has a specific role in financing investments in equipment
and property. In its simplest form, it allows the business
to purchase a piece of machinery via installment payments
made over time to the leasing company. Leasing allows small
companies to slowly build up their necessary fixed asset
base. Larger companies in certain industries, such as
airlines or retail, rely heavily on leasing, as well, for a
variety of reasons including increased flexibility, access
to additional services and risk reduction.
Sale of assets
Equity and debt financing tap external resources for
funding. Firms can turn internally available resources into
cash. Businesses may decide to sell existing assets for a
number of reasons: to avoid high costs of external
financing, to eliminate unnecessary assets, due to lack of
external funding options or in a distressed situation.
Many firms decide to sell specific types of assets, such as
receivables in a factoring transaction routinely. Others
may turn to asset sales only when exiting a business line
or market. Assets sold can include individual pieces of
machinery for small firms or entire units or subsidiaries
for large corporations. Often, the sale of assets can have
a significant impact on the remaining business.
Financing from cash flow from operations
The financing of routine, day-to-day operations should
ideally be covered by internal sources: the cash flow
generated in operations. While this is typically not
immediately achievable for new businesses at inception, and
established businesses may sometimes experience shorter
periods of operating cash flow falling short of ongoing
financing needs, any viable or sustainable business should
be able to do this under ordinary circumstances. In fact,
with the exception of early stage and significant
transformational situations, the business’s ability to fund
its ongoing activities from internally generated cash is a
pre-requisite for securing additional external financing
for new projects and growth.
To read more articles by Hannah White, click here.
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