Volume 12, Issue No 22, Circulation: under revision, 4th Nov 2012
Next Issue: 18th Nov 2012
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Today's Feature Article
The History of FOREX Trading
The origin of Forex trading traces its history to centuries
ago. Different currencies and the need to exchange them had
existed since the Babylonians. They are credited with the
first use of paper notes and receipts. Speculation hardly
ever happened, and certainly the enormous speculative
activity in the market today would have been frowned upon.
In those days, the value of goods were expressed in terms
of other goods(also called as the Barter System). The
obvious limitations of such a system encouraged
establishing more generally accepted mediums of exchange.
It was important that a common base of value could be
established. In some economies, items such as teeth,
feathers even stones served this purpose, but soon various
metals, in particular gold and silver, established
themselves as an accepted means of payment as well as a
reliable storage of value. Trade was carried among people
of Africa, Asia etc through this system.
Coins were initially minted from the preferred metal and in
stable political regimes, the introduction of a paper form
of governmental I.O.U. during the Middle Ages also gained
acceptance. This type of I.O.U. was introduced more
successfully through force than through persuasion and is
now the basis of today's modern currencies.
Before the First World war, most Central banks supported
their currencies with convertibility to gold. However, the
gold exchange standard had its weaknesses of boom-bust
patterns. As an economy strengthened, it would import a
great deal from out of the country until it ran down its
gold reserves required to support its money; as a result,
the money supply would diminish, interest rates escalate
and economic activity slowed to the point of recession.
Ultimately, prices of commodities had hit bottom, appearing
attractive to other nations, who would sprint into buying
fury that injected the economy with gold until it increased
its money supply, drive down interest rates and restore
wealth into the economy..
However, for this type of gold
exchange, there was not necessarily a Centrals bank need
for full coverage of the government's currency reserves.
This did not occur very often, however when a group mindset
fostered this disastrous notion of converting back to gold
in mass, panic resulted in so-called "Run on banks " The
combination of a greater supply of paper money without the
gold to cover led to devastating inflation and resulting
political instability. The Great Depression and the removal
of the gold standard in 1931 created a serious lull in
Forex market activity. From 1931 until 1973, the Forex
market went through a series of changes. These changes
greatly affected the global economies at the time and
speculation in the Forex markets during these times was
In order to protect local national interests, increased
foreign exchange controls were introduced to prevent market
forces from punishing monetary irresponsibility.
Near the end of World War II, the Bretton Woods agreement
was reached on the initiative of the USA in July 1944. The
conference held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire rejected
John Maynard Keynes suggestion for a new world reserve
currency in favor of a system built on the US Dollar.
International institutions such as the IMF, The World Bank
and GATT were created in the same period as the emerging
victors of WWII searched for a way to avoid the
destabilizing monetary crises leading to the war. The
Bretton Woods agreement resulted in a system of fixed
exchange rates that reinstated The Gold Standard partly,
fixing the USD at $35.00 per ounce of Gold and fixing the
other main currencies to the dollar, initially intended to
be on a permanent basis.
The Bretton Woods system came under increasing pressure as
national economies moved in different directions during the
1960's. A number of realignments held the system alive for
a long time but eventually Bretton Woods collapsed in the
early 1970's following president Nixon's suspension of the
gold convertibility in August 1971. The dollar was not any
longer suited as the sole international currency at a time
when it was under severe pressure from increasing US budget
and trade deficits.
The last few decades have seen foreign exchange trading
develop into the world's largest global market.
Restrictions on capital flows have been removed in most
countries, leaving the market forces free to adjust foreign
exchange rates according to their perceived values.
The European Economic Community introduced a new system of
fixed exchange rates in 1979, the European Monetary System.
The quest continued in Europe for currency stability with
the 1991 signing of The Maastricht treaty. This was to not
only fix exchange rates but also actually replace many of
them with the Euro in 2002. London was, and remains the
principal offshore market. In the 1980s, it became the key
center in the Eurodollar market when British banks began
lending dollars as an alternative to pounds in order to
maintain their leading position in global finance.
In Asia, the lack of sustainability of fixed foreign
exchange rates has gained new relevance with the events in
South East Asia in the latter part of 1997, where currency
after currency was devalued against the US dollar, leaving
other fixed exchange rates in particular in South America
also looking very vulnerable.
While commercial companies have had to face a much more
volatile currency environment in recent years, investors
and financial institutions have discovered a new playground.
The Forex exchange market initially worked under the
central banks and the governmental institutions but later
on it accommodated the various institutions, at present it
also includes the dot com booms and the world wide web. The
size of the Forex market now dwarfs any other investment
market. The foreign exchange market is the largest
financial market in the world. Approximately 1.9 trillion
dollars are traded daily in the foreign exchange market. It
is estimated that more than USD 1,200 Billion are traded
every day. It can be said easily that Forex market is a
lucrative opportunity for the modern day savvy investor.
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